What Do Beekeepers Do In Winter?

The Winter Duties of Beekeepers

Beekeeping is a rewarding and intricate practice that revolves around the fascinating lives of bees. While the peak of beekeeping activity is experienced during the warmer months, the winter season holds its own set of responsibilities for dedicated beekeepers.

In this article, we will delve into the essential tasks that beekeepers undertake during the winter months to ensure the health and survival of their beloved colonies.

Beekeeping Activities in Winter

Inspecting and Repairing Beehives

Inspecting and repairing beehives is a vital task during winter, as it allows you to identify and address any issues that may have arisen. Here are some key points to consider:

  • Begin by conducting a thorough inspection of each beehive. Look for signs of disease, the presence of pests, and any structural damage.
  • If you identify any problems, such as a weak hive or damaged components, take immediate action to rectify them. This may involve replacing frames, adding insulation, or reinforcing the hive structure.
  • Pay close attention to the hive’s ventilation system. Adequate airflow is crucial for maintaining optimal hive conditions during winter.
  • Ensure that the hive entrance is clear of debris or dead bees, allowing for easy access and proper ventilation.

Cleaning and Storing Equipment

can you keep bees in the winter

During winter, when the hives are less active, it is an ideal time to clean and store your beekeeping equipment. Follow these guidelines:

  • Clean all equipment, including hive components and tools, to remove any honey or propolis residue. This prevents the growth of mold or the spread of diseases.
  • Use a mild detergent and warm water for cleaning, and ensure thorough rinsing to remove any cleaning residue.
  • Store equipment in a dry location to prevent moisture buildup that can damage wooden components or attract pests.
  • Properly label and organize stored equipment to facilitate easy retrieval when needed in the future.

Building New Beehives, if Needed

Winter also presents an opportunity to expand your beekeeping operation by building new beehives. Consider the following points:

  • Assess your current hive capacity and determine if additional hives are required to accommodate growing colonies or future splits.
  • Select high-quality materials to construct new beehives. Ensure that they are sturdy, well-insulated, and suitable for your local climate.
  • Plan and assemble the beehives during the winter months so they are ready for use in the upcoming season.
  • If you are new to building beehives, consider seeking guidance from experienced beekeepers or attending workshops to ensure proper construction techniques.

Replacing or Repairing Frames and Combs

Frames and combs are vital components of a beehive, and winter offers an opportunity to inspect, repair, or replace them as necessary. Consider the following recommendations:

  • Inspect all frames and combs for signs of wear, damage, or disease. Replace any compromised frames to prevent the spread of infections within the colony.
  • Repair frames with minor damage by using wire, string, or other appropriate materials. Ensure that they are structurally sound and capable of supporting the weight of brood and honey.
  • Clean frames and combs thoroughly to remove any wax or propolis buildup, as this can impede hive functioning.
  • Consider rotating frames between hives to equalize their condition and promote colony health.

Hive Health

As the days grow shorter and colder, beekeepers shift their focus to ensuring the health and survival of their precious honeybee colonies during the winter months. Winter care plays a vital role in fortifying the bees’ resilience, preventing diseases, and maintaining sufficient food supplies for the colony to thrive.

Monitoring Hive Health

One of the essential tasks beekeepers perform during winter is monitoring the health of their hives. By carefully inspecting the colonies, they can identify any signs of disease or pests that may affect the bees’ well-being. Regular inspections allow beekeepers to intervene promptly and implement necessary measures to keep the colony strong and disease-free.

Checking for Signs of Disease and Pests

During winter, beekeepers pay close attention to any indications of disease within their colonies.

Common ailments include foulbrood infections, nosema, or varroosis caused by Varroa mites. By observing the behavior, appearance, and activity level of the bees, beekeepers can detect these issues early on and take appropriate actions to mitigate their impact.

Assessing Colony Strength and Food Supplies

Understanding the strength and food reserves of a colony is crucial in winter care. Beekeepers assess the population size of the hive, ensuring it has enough bees to generate sufficient warmth for survival.

Additionally, the availability of food stores is evaluated to guarantee the bees have an ample supply of honey to sustain them throughout the winter. If necessary, beekeepers can add supplemental feeding to prevent starvation and strengthen the colony.

Treating for Varroa Mites, if Necessary

Varroa mites are notorious pests that can weaken bee colonies and transmit diseases if left unchecked. During winter, beekeepers may decide to treat their hives for Varroa mites, based on monitoring results and the severity of infestation. By using approved treatments, beekeepers protect their colonies against these destructive parasites and ensure the well-being of their bees.

Providing Supplemental Feeding, if Needed

beehive winter care

In times when natural food sources are scarce, such as in long winters colonies, beekeepers may need to provide supplemental feeding to maintain the bees’ strength.

This is especially important when food sources are scarce, such as during prolonged periods of cold weather or when the bees have depleted their honey stores. To ensure the bees have enough nourishment, beekeepers may include protein patties in the feeding regimen. These patties provide a valuable source of protein, which is essential for brood rearing and colony development.

Planning for the Upcoming Season

As the winter season settles in and the temperature drops, beekeepers find themselves with a unique opportunity to plan and prepare for the upcoming beekeeping season.

Reviewing Previous Year’s Records and Performance

One of the most crucial tasks beekeepers take on during the winter is reviewing the records and performance of their hives from the previous year. By carefully examining data such as honey production, pest and disease management, and overall hive health, beekeepers can gain valuable insights into the strengths and weaknesses of their beekeeping practices.

This review process allows beekeepers to identify any areas that may require improvement or adjustment. By learning from past experiences, they can modify their management strategies accordingly, ultimately leading to more successful outcomes in the future.

Ordering New Bees and Queens, if Required

To maintain a healthy and productive honeybee colony, beekeepers often need to replenish their hives with new bees and queens. Winter is an ideal time to assess the population of each hive and determine if additional bees are needed.

By ordering new bees and queens during the winter months, beekeepers can ensure they have an adequate supply for the upcoming season. This proactive approach allows for proper planning and avoids last-minute rushes, ensuring that new bees and queens will be ready to integrate seamlessly into the apiary when spring arrives.

Planning Hive Expansions or Splits

Another essential task that beekeepers undertake in winter is planning hive expansions or splits. As colonies grow and become more productive, they may require additional space to accommodate the increasing population and honey stores. By evaluating hive strength and growth potential during the winter, beekeepers can determine if hive expansions or splits are necessary.

Expanding hives involves adding extra boxes or supers to accommodate the growing colony’s needs, while splitting involves creating new colonies from existing ones. These strategies not only prevent overcrowding within the hives but also provide opportunities for beekeepers to multiply their colonies, increase honey production, and potentially prevent swarming.

Identifying Potential Apiary Locations for the Spring

Winter serves as an ideal time for beekeepers to scout and identify potential apiary locations for the spring. Assessing suitable locations in advance enables beekeepers to analyze factors such as proximity to forage resources, accessibility, and potential risks.

In addition, beekeepers may need to obtain permission or permits if they plan to place hives on private or public lands. By starting this process in winter, they can address any necessary paperwork or negotiations ahead of time, ensuring a smooth and timely setup of their apiaries in the spring.

Continuing Education and Research in Beekeeping

In the vast world of beekeeping, there is always something new to learn. As winter casts its chilly embrace upon the land, beekeepers do not rest; instead, they turn their attention to continuing education and research.

  • Attending Beekeeping Conferences and Workshops

One of the key ways beekeepers enhance their knowledge and skills is by attending conferences and workshops specifically tailored to the art and science of beekeeping. These events provide an opportunity for beekeepers to connect with fellow enthusiasts, exchange knowledge, and gain insights from industry experts. Whether it’s a local gathering or a national convention, beekeepers eagerly gather to hear about the latest research, best practices, and emerging trends in beekeeping.

  • Reading Books, Journals, and Online Resources
beehive during winter

Another essential avenue for beekeepers to expand their understanding is through reading. They peruse books, delve into scientific journals, and explore informative online resources dedicated to beekeeping. From classics on bee behavior to cutting-edge research on hive management, the written word serves as a valuable source of information. By immersing themselves in these materials, beekeepers stay abreast of new techniques, industry advancements, and innovative beekeeping practices.

  • Staying Updated on New Beekeeping Practices and Techniques

Beekeeping is an ever-evolving field, with continuous advancements and discoveries across various aspects of the craft. During winter, beekeepers invest time in researching and staying updated on the latest developments in beekeeping practices and techniques.

From hive design improvements to disease management strategies, beekeepers strive to incorporate the most effective, sustainable, and bee-friendly approaches into their own practices. Staying informed enables them to provide the best possible care for their precious buzzing companions.

  • Conducting Research or Experiments, if Applicable

For some beekeepers, winter provides an opportunity to delve deeply into research or experimentation. These curious individuals take advantage of the off-season to design and conduct their own studies, exploring unanswered questions or testing innovative ideas.

Whether it’s investigating the effects of alternative hive materials or seeking solutions to specific challenges faced in their apiaries, these pioneers of beekeeping expand the boundaries of knowledge and contribute to the collective understanding of beekeeping worldwide.

Winter Beekeeping Challenges and Strategies

As winter arrives, beekeepers face specific challenges in ensuring the health and survival of their hives.

Dealing with Hive Moisture and Condensation

During winter, preventing excessive moisture buildup within the hive is crucial for maintaining a healthy bee colony. Excessive moisture can lead to mold growth, weakened bees, and increased susceptibility to diseases. Here are some strategies to tackle this challenge:

  • Provide Proper Ventilation: Ensuring adequate ventilation without compromising the warmth of the hive is vital. This can be achieved by providing upper ventilation options, such as top entrances or moisture quilts, which allow moisture to escape without causing drafts.
  • Use Absorbent Materials: Placing absorbent materials, such as wood chips or sawdust on the inner cover or under the hive’s outer cover, can help absorb excess moisture and reduce condensation.
  • Regularly Monitor Moisture Levels: Use moisture boards or hygrometers inside the hive to monitor humidity levels. If moisture accumulates, take appropriate measures to improve airflow and reduce condensation.

Providing Adequate Ventilation Without Compromising Warmth

Maintaining proper ventilation is vital for hive health, but it must be balanced with the need to keep the hive warm during winter. Here are some strategies to ensure adequate ventilation without compromising warmth:

  • Use Ventilation Devices: Install devices such as screened bottom boards, ventilation boxes, or ventilation holes to facilitate airflow without letting excessive cold air directly affect the cluster of bees.
  • Optimize Hive Positioning: Place beehives in locations that receive maximum sunlight exposure during the winter months. This helps bees generate heat and keeps the hive warm naturally.
  • Insulate the Hive: Insulating the hive with materials like foam insulation boards or placing insulating wraps around it can help retain heat while still allowing for proper ventilation.

Protecting Hives from Extreme Cold and Wind

Winter brings extreme cold and wind, which can be detrimental to bee colonies. To protect hives from these elements, consider the following strategies:

  • Provide Windbreaks: Erect windbreaks or place hives in locations shielded from strong winds. This can be achieved using hedges, fences, or placing hives close to buildings.
  • Reduce Hive Entrances: Minimize the size of hive entrances during winter to prevent cold drafts from entering the hive. Bees can effectively defend smaller entrances while conserving heat.
  • Wrap Hives: Wrapping hives with insulating materials, such as tar paper or insulation blankets, helps retain heat and protects against the chilling effects of wind.

Monitoring Winter Stores and Preventing Starvation

Maintaining adequate food stores for the colony throughout winter is vital to prevent starvation. Here are some essential strategies to monitor and prevent starvation:

  • Assess Honey Stores: Regularly check the honey stores within the hive to ensure they are sufficient. If necessary, provide supplemental feeding, such as sugar syrup or fondant, to supplement their food source.
  • Keep Emergency Food Stores: Leave emergency food stores within the hive, such as frames with capped honey, in case the bees require additional nourishment during extended periods of cold weather.
  • Conduct Mid-Winter Checks: As winter progresses, occasionally inspect the hive’s food stores and add additional food if required. This helps prevent starvation and keeps the colony strong until spring arrives.

Protecting against Pests like Mice

Mice can pose a significant threat to bee colonies during winter, as they seek shelter and honey stores within the hive. Employ the following strategies to protect your hives:

  • Create Mouse Guards: Install mouse guards over the hive entrances to prevent mice from entering while still allowing bees to come and go freely.
  • Monitor and Remove Mouse Nests: Regularly inspect the hive for signs of mouse activity and remove any nests or droppings found. This helps prevent the destruction of honey stores and ensures a safe and clean environment for the bees.

Winter Tasks Beyond the Honeybee Colony

While the bees are huddled together in the warmth of their hive, there are several essential tasks for beekeepers to take care of beyond the care of their honeybee colonies.

– Honey Extraction and Processing

beehive over winter

Harvesting honey is undoubtedly one of the most rewarding tasks for a beekeeper. Once the honey supers have been removed from the hives, it’s time to start the honey extraction process. Begin by carefully uncapping the frames using a hot knife or uncapping fork. Then, place the frames in an extractor, a device that uses centrifugal force to spin the honey out of the combs.

Once the honey is extracted, it should be strained to remove any impurities or wax particles. Finally, it is crucial to store the honey properly in clean, airtight containers to maintain its quality and prevent crystallization.

Equipment Maintenance and Repair

Winter is an ideal time to carry out maintenance and repairs on your beekeeping equipment. Inspect your hives, frames, and supers for any signs of damage or wear. Replace or repair any broken or rotten components to ensure the optimal functioning of your equipment in the coming season. Additionally, cleaning and disinfecting your equipment is essential to prevent the spread of diseases and pests among your colonies. Take this time to clean your hives thoroughly and sterilize any reusable equipment by using a solution of bleach and water.

Developing Marketing Strategies for Honey and Related Products

While spring and summer are the busiest times for harvesting honey, it’s equally important for beekeepers to focus on marketing their products during the winter months. Start by evaluating your target market and identifying potential customers.

Develop a clear branding strategy that highlights the unique qualities of your honey and other bee-related products. Consider leveraging social media platforms and online marketplaces to reach a wider audience. Collaborating with local stores, farmers’ markets, or even hosting tasting events can also be effective marketing strategies.

Remember, effective marketing can significantly contribute to the success of your beekeeping venture.

Engaging with the Beekeeping Community

Beekeeping is not just a solitary pursuit but a community-driven endeavor. Winter is an excellent time to connect with fellow beekeepers and engage with the vibrant beekeeping community.

Participate in local beekeeping associations or clubs, attend workshops, conferences, or training sessions. These gatherings offer opportunities to network, exchange knowledge and experiences, and stay up-to-date with the latest advancements in beekeeping practices. Sharing your own insights and learning from others can be immensely enriching for your beekeeping journey.


Winter may be considered a quieter period in beekeeping, but the duties and responsibilities of beekeepers continue year-round. By understanding the seasonal nature of beekeeping, including the essential tasks covered in this chapter, beekeepers can ensure the survival and thriving of their colonies, enabling the bees to continue their vital role in pollination and honey production.

Winter’s rest provides an invaluable opportunity for beekeepers to reflect, educate themselves, and prepare for the buzzing activity that lies ahead.


Why do bees need supplemental feeding in winter?

  • Cold temperatures limit foraging opportunities, reducing the availability of natural food sources.

What do beekeepers do in winter?

  • During winter, beekeepers primarily focus on maintaining the health and well-being of the bee colonies. They ensure the bees have enough food stores, protect them from extreme weather conditions, and monitor for any signs of disease or pests.
winter beehive maintenance

How do beekeepers ensure bees have enough food in winter?

  • Beekeepers prepare the hives by leaving ample honey stores within the hive for the bees to feed on during the colder months. They also perform regular checks to assess the honey reserves and provide supplemental feeding if necessary.

What measures do beekeepers take to protect bees from extreme weather?

  • Beekeepers insulate the beehives to shield the bees from drastic temperature changes. They may use materials like insulating foam or wooden wraps to provide extra protection. Additionally, they position the hives in sheltered locations away from strong winds.

What diseases or pests are common during winter, and how do beekeepers combat them?

  • Common winter ailments for bees include varroa mites, nosema, and bacterial infections. Beekeepers monitor the health of the colonies regularly and treat any infestations or infections promptly. This may involve using chemical treatments or employing more natural remedies like organic acids or essential oils.

Can bee colonies survive the winter without human intervention?

  • While bees are capable of surviving winter on their own, the chances of survival significantly increase with the support of beekeepers. Beekeepers take measures to ensure the colonies have enough food, proper insulation, and protection from diseases, giving them a better chance of making it through the winter successfully.

Do beekeepers have to feed bees during winter if there isn’t enough honey?

  • Yes, if the honey stores in the hives are insufficient to sustain the bees throughout the winter, beekeepers will supplement their diet with sugar syrup or fondant. This helps ensure the bees have enough nourishment until foraging becomes possible again in the spring.

Can beekeeping activities be completely paused during winter?

  • While many beekeeping tasks decrease in activity during winter, beekeepers still need to periodically check the hives, monitor the health of the bees, and provide supplementary feeding if required. Beekeepers also use this time to plan for the upcoming season by ordering supplies and preparing equipment.

Is it necessary to protect beehives from snow accumulation in winter?

  • Snow accumulation around the entrance of the hive can hinder the bees’ ability to access the outside world. Beekeepers often place entrance reducers or snow guards in front of the hive to prevent excessive snow buildup and keep the entrance clear for the bees to come and go as needed.

How do beekeepers maintain proper ventilation in beehives during winter?

  • Beekeepers ensure adequate ventilation in the hives during winter without compromising insulation. This is typically achieved by using specific hive designs that incorporate ventilation holes or systems to allow proper airflow while reducing the risk of drafts that could harm the bees.

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